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隨堂考試:從washback effect談起

  測驗我並不是專家,如有謬誤,請各方學者指正。

  要說隨堂考試的重要,每個老師都有不同的看法。不過在以前的經驗中,通常會碰到的問題是:新手教師不敢考試,怕會讓學生不喜歡。到底考試是否必要,這我試著從washback effect談起。 

  Washback effect(後效作用)是討論測驗時常會談到的。依據學者的定義,
Shohamy,
Donitsa-Schmidt, and Ferman (1996), washback is "the connections
between testing and learning" (p. 298) 「是測驗與學習的連結」;Gates (1995), it is
"the influence of testing on teaching and learning" (p.
101)「是測驗對教與學的影響」;Messick (1996) washback is "the extent to which the
introduction and use of a test influences language teachers and
learners to do things they would not otherwise do that promote or
inhibit language learning" (p. 241)「是測驗影響語言師生去做可以幫助或抑制語言學習的事」。

  身為老師,當然不樂見考試引導教學,考試應是為教學服務,測驗重點也應是教學上所必須達成的目標。從這點出發,隨堂考試如果能促進學習者學習,並能在一定程度下反映學生學習狀況,沒有理由不進行隨堂測驗。再來必須要注意的就是:1.別讓考試佔據了太多課室時間,因為這只是教學的一部分;2.考試最好能兼顧各部分能力,否則學生可能會被誤導。  

參考文獻
Gates,
S. (1995). Exploiting washback from standardized tests. In J. D. Brown
& S. O.  Yamashita (Eds.), Language testing in Japan (pp. 101-106).
Tokyo: Japanese Association for Language Teaching.   

Messick, S. (1996). Validity and washback in language testing. Language Testing, 13,241-256.

Shohamy,
E., Donitsa-Schmidt, S., & Ferman, I. (1996). Test impact
revisited: Washback effect over time. Language Testing, 13, 298-317.

文章部分引用來源
http://www.jalt.org/test/bro_14.htm  

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